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dutch origins
I. N. Phelps Stokes, The Iconography of Manhattan Island, Volume 1, PL 10A-b. Retrieved from

The Castello Plan is the most detailed map of New Amsterdam during the Dutch period, depicting the settlement in 1660. Copied many times through history, the original by the cartographer Jacques Cortelyou was commissioned by the burgomasters to send to the directors of the Dutch West India Company in Amsterdam. Open spaces of orchards and gardens featured prominently, as lot owners resisted building upon their property until land values rose. This posed a problem for the growing population of the settlement that had almost doubled to 1,500 inhabitants by the end of the 1650s. In response to the Cortelyou missive, the directors expressed discontent with the paucity of buildings in the small town, which they envisioned developing into a major port.

The map shows the settlement focused on the East River, with the large fort occupying the site that became Bowling Green, at the head of Broadway. The main canal, today's Broad Street, has a shorter offshoot to the west along present-day Beaver Street. At the eastern edge is Pearl Street, home to many handsome homes and warehouses of wealthy merchants. At the north end of the settlement is a nascent Wall Street, demarked by the protective wall. Colonial inhabitants of New Amsterdam feared invasion from New Englanders, but a treaty between the global powers kept them safe until 1664, when the British would capture the settlement and rename it New York.


Pre-1850 History of Wall Street
Dutch Origins
New Amsterdam: The Castello Plan
British New York
Early 18th Century
The Slave Market
City Hall
East River Commerce
Fire of 1776
Trinity Churches
Mansions and Banks
Wall Street in 1825
The Great Fire of 1835
Customs House and Merchants Exchange
A Street of Banks
Lowenstrom's Panorama-1850 South
Lowenstrom's Panorama-1850 North
New York in 1850
Fortune 1930
Monuments of Wall Street
Early Photographs of Wall Street
Vertical Wall Street
1 Wall Street
23 and 63 Wall Street
Unbuilt Stock Exchange
14 Wall Street
40 Wall Street
60 Wall Street
120 Wall Street
1928-1931 Towers
East River End
Historical Land Maps